South America. The Anostomidae is the second most diverse family in Characiformes, with approximately 150 valid species. Whereas most genera are composed of relatively few valid species - less than six; Leporinus comprises approximately half of the entire family diversity, with 80 or so valid species. Because Leporinus is a nonmonophyletic group, recent attempts have been made to distinguish monophyletic species groups that could be recognized as distinct genera. Hypomasticus
was resurrected to include eight species previously allocated in Leporinus, similarly, Megaleporinus was
described to include nine species previously recognized in Leporinus and one in Hypomasticus.